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Inquiry & Research: The 5 Inquiry Pathways: Scales and Measures
Study of hospital executives covering nine constructs related to complex adaptive systems: a strategic framework; organizational culture; work structures; CEO and executive team; leadership culture; quality control systems; accountability framework; learning structures; and feedback processes.
GSLC dissertations that review and/or use existing scales
Empathy scale used in research – Bryant Empathy Index (1982). Other reviewed scales: Hogan’s Empathy Scale (1969), Mehrabian & Epstein’s (1972) measure of emotional empathy, and Davis (1980, 1983, 1994) Interpersonal Reactivity Index.
Two-phase mixed-method study revised and validated an instrument to measure an employee's personal experience with optimism in their workplace and developed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis as well as convergent and divergent validity -- utility of the scales tested on a workgroup.
Correlational scale development with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and convergent and divergent validity and interviews an individual's self-perception of their own ability, motivation, and propensity to trust -- online survey with Mechanical Turk facilitated sample.
Mixed methods study explored the concept of power distance and social identity -- scales were developed and validated, scale scores were compared for demographic groups, and factors influencing power distance measures were identified.
Mixed method study with correlational (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling) with data collected through online survey and thematic analysis with data collected through semi-structured interviews and focus groups explored the nature and significance of the Australian Good Bloke phrase.
Correlational study developed a resilience-thinking leadership mindset scale for organizations through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and convergent and divergent validity as well as narrative feedback from corporate resilience executives.
Mixed methods sequential study developed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis scales to measure building high school student leadership capacity on a personal, interpersonal, and organizational level -- data collected through an online survey and focus groups and interviews, with comparative analysis conducted by demographic characteristics and school type.
Correlational exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in the development of a scale to measure adaptive leadership with authority through an online survey with both closed and open-ended questions using a sample facilitated by Mechanical Turk, narrative thematic analysis confirmed the scale sub-constructs.
Mixed methods study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and convergent and divergent validity, with follow-up interviews to develop and validate a scale for assessing design thinking capabilities.
Correlational and comparative study developed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and convergent and divergent tests of validity for two teacher self assessment instruments for teacher effectiveness -- building positive relationships with students and creating an empowering classroom environment -- participant demographic variables were compared using metric invariance, t-tests, and ANOVA.
Correlational with Principal Component Analysis to factor validate scales related to Hodson's original theory and factor development work on anomie and comparative analysis based on gender and time in rank, using online survey administered through Qualtrics.
Correlational exploratory factor analysis using Principal Component Analysis and multiple regression analysis with control variables with data collected through an online survey with a "surviving downsizing" link sent to labor organizations, public employee associations, and university.
Correlational Q methodology with narrative inquiry to develop the concept and identify elements of edge leadership -- the mindful turn around of troubled businesses to sustain it for the future in a turbulent and competitive climate -- qualitative data through interviews and factor identification through factor analysis.
article and power point explanation describing the use of existing scales in research : Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzales-Roma & Bakker, 2002), Job Satisfaction (Brayfield and Rothe, 1951), Hogan Development Survey (conceptual development from Horney, 1950), and Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter, 2001).
article and power points describing the study and the use of four previously validated scales as measures: Activism Orientation Scale (Corning & Myers, 2002), Social Issues Advocacy Scale (Nilsson, Marzalek, Linnemeyer, Bahner & Hanson, 2009), Multicultural Environmental Inventory ( Pope-Davis, Liu, Nevitt, & Toporek, 2000).
article link and powerpoint description of scales used to evaluate an intervention program on civility, respect, and engagement at work. Existing scales covered include: Civility Scale (Neterko, Osatuke, Mohr, Warren & Dyrenforth, 2007); Workplace Incivility Scale (Cortina, et al., 2001); Cook and Wall’s (1980) Trust in Management subscale of the Interpersonal Trust at Work Scale. The Emotional Exhaustion and Cynicism subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS; Maslach, Jackson & Leiter, 1996; Schaufeli, Leiter, Maslach, & Jackson, 1996)
article link and powerpoint description of scales used to evaluate an intervention program on cultivating humility for religious leaders. Existing scales covered include:
Relational Humility Scale, Davis et al. (2011); Spiritual Humility Scale, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin (1985); Intellectual Humility Scale, Leary et al. (2017); Expressed Humility Scale, Owens et al. (2013)
article link and power point description of scales used to evaluate an intervention program on civility, respect, and engagement at work. Multiple measures were author developed or selected items from some existing scales.
Selected Bibliographic Resource Tabs --Scale Development -- Books, chapters, articles, and external dissertations
Scale development : theory and applications by Robert F. DeVellisA best-seller in its previous editions, Scale Development: Theory and Applications, Third Edition has been extensively updated and revised to address changes in the field and topics that have grown in importance. Widely adopted for graduate courses in departments such as Psychology, Public Health, Marketing, Nursing, and Education, this book will prove beneficial to applied researchers across the social sciences.
Publication Date: 2011-06-01
Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research, Second Edition by Timothy A. BrownWith its emphasis on practical and conceptual aspects, rather than mathematics or formulas, this accessible book has established itself as the go-to resource on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Detailed, worked-through examples drawn from psychology, management, and sociology studies illustrate the procedures, pitfalls, and extensions of CFA methodology. The text shows how to formulate, program, and interpret CFA models using popular latent variable software packages (LISREL, Mplus, EQS, SAS/CALIS); understand the similarities and differences between CFA and exploratory factor analysis (EFA); and report results from a CFA study. It is filled with useful advice and tables that outline the procedures. The companion website (www.guilford.com/brown3-materials) offers data and program syntax files for most of the research examples, as well as links to CFA-related resources. New to This Edition *Updated throughout to incorporate important developments in latent variable modeling. *Chapter on Bayesian CFA and multilevel measurement models. *Addresses new topics (with examples): exploratory structural equation modeling, bifactor analysis, measurement invariance evaluation with categorical indicators, and a new method for scaling latent variables. *Utilizes the latest versions of major latent variable software packages.
Publication Date: 2015-01-07
Summated Rating Scale Construction by Paul E. SpectorThe goal for any social scientist conducting a survey is to develop a rating on some attitude, value or opinion — a summated rating scale. Aimed at helping researchers construct more effective scales, Spector shows how to determine the number of items necessary, the appropriate amount of response categories and the most productive wording of items. The author discusses how to sort good items from bad (including item-remainder coefficients and Cronbach's alpha) and how to validate a scale, including dimensional validity from factor analysis. User-friendly, the book concludes with a step-by-step account of how to develop a summated rating scale based on classical test theory.
Publication Date: 1992-01-01
Includes chapters on scale development that have been or could be assigned for session readings
Chapter 14- Survey and Scales in EDI Research by Carol Baronin Bendl, R., Booysen, L. A. E., & Pringle, J. K. (Eds.). (2018). Handbook of research methods in diversity management, equality and inclusion at work.
Covers conversational survey format, survey questions, and exploratory and confirmatory scale development.
This is a content analysis of scale development articles published between 1995 and 2004. It points to issues related to sample characteristics, extraction and rotation methods, as well as item retention and model fit decisions.
Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs by Gregory J. Boyle (Editor); Donald H. Saklofske (Editor); Gerald Matthews (Editor)Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs assists researchers and practitioners by identifying and reviewing the best scales/measures for a variety of constructs. Each chapter discusses test validity, reliability, and utility. Authors have focused on the most often used and cited scales/measures, with a particular emphasis on those published in recent years. Each scale is identified and described, the sample on which it was developed is summarized, and reliability and validity data are presented, followed by presentation of the scale, in full or in part, where such permission has been obtained. Measures fall into five broad groups. The emotional disposition section reviews measures of general affective tendencies, and/or cognitive dispositions closely linked to emotion. These measures include hope and optimism, anger and hostility, life satisfaction, self-esteem, confidence, and affect dimensions. Emotion regulation scales go beyond general dispositions to measure factors that may contribute to understanding and managing emotions. These measures include alexithymia, empathy, resiliency, coping, sensation seeking, and ability and trait emotional intelligence. The interpersonal styles section introduces some traditional social-psychological themes in the context of personality assessment. These measures include adult attachment, concerns with public image and social evaluation, and forgiveness. The vices and virtues section reflects adherence to moral standards as an individual characteristic shaped by sociocultural influences and personality. These measures include values and moral personality, religiosity, dark personalities (Machiavellianism,narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy), and perfectionism. The sociocultural interaction and conflict section addresses relationships between different groups and associated attitudes. These measures include cross-cultural values, personality and beliefs, intergroup contact, stereotyping and prejudice, attitudes towards sexual orientation, and personality across cultures. Encompasses 25 different areas of psychology research Each scale has validity, reliability info, info on test bias, etc Multiple scales discussed for each construct Discussion of which scales are appropriate in which circumstances and to what populations Examples of scales included
Publication Date: 2014-09-04
Taking the measure of work : a guide to validated scales for organizational research and diagnosis by Dail L. FieldsThis reference provides researchers and consultants with quick and easy access to one hundred and thirty-seven validated measures for organizational research and consulting. The measures describe, or assess employee perceptions about and affective responses to the experience of their work within an organization. Each measure has demonstrated reliability and validity and has been used in research studies published during 1990-1999. The measures cover: Job Satisfaction Organizational Commitment Job Characteristics Job Stress Job Roles Organizational Justice Work-family conflict Person-organization fit Work behaviors Work values Whether preparing questionnaires or interviews for an employee survey, organizational assessment, dissertation or research program, this book guides users to a summary level understanding of each topic area, the measurement issues in the area, and a selection of measures to choose from. This will eliminate an often time-consuming and occasionally haphazard search for validated measures within published studies. Organizational consultants, in particular, should find this book useful, since using validated measures can help them focus discussions with clients on the substance of their findings and away from the quality of their measurements.
StatWiki page including plugins for AMOS to simplify the whole process. Gaskins’ entire series of videos is excellent and takes you through everything you need to know about how to develop a scale or confirm the validity of a scale, including how to think about the process and write about the findings.
YouTube video on how to search for existing measurement scales in PsycINFO
James Gaskins, PhD presents an excellent short video showing how to search for validated scales to use as construct (topic) measures for your research. IMPORTANT NOTE: The "in.colorado.edu" search site that Gaskins refers to has changed to https://inn.theorizeit.org/. At this site you will be able to search by either variable (e.g. leadership, social justice, etc.) or scale items (i.e. the actual measures).
Videos on Scales and measures
This is the first video in Gaskins’ whole series on factor analysis. This first video leads into the next videos. If it does not automatically take you there go to his StatWiki link under Links.