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APA 7th Edition

In-Text Citations

APA has simplified in-text citations in regards to multiple authors. If there are one or two authors, list their names:

(Smith, 2019); (Smith & Jones, 2019)

For three or more authors, list only the first author's name and then et al.

(Smith et al., 2019)

Formatting Author Names

In the opposite direction, APA now requires listing up to 20 authors for a source in the references list. This is a change from 8 in the 6th edition. For works with more than 20 authors, list the first 19, insert an ellipsis point, and then list the last author's name.

Smith, J., Jones, B. E., Brown, K. E., Doe, J., Chan, L., Garcia, S. M., White, C-G., Fernández, J., Ahmed, A. J., Zhào, L., Cohen, D., Watanabe, K., Kim, K., Del Rosario, J., Yilmaz, P. K., Nguyễn, T., Wilson, T. H., Wang, W., Kahale, A. ... Zhang, Z. Z. (Date). Title. Source.


For books, no longer list the publication location.

George, M. W. (2008). The elements of library research: What every student needs to know. Princeton University Press.

If a book has a DOI assigned to it, add it to the end of the reference. 

Samanez-Larkin, G. R. (Ed.). (2019). The aging brain: Functional adaptation across adulthood. American Psychological Association.

eBooks should be cited exactly as print books. Do not include a database.

Keating, D. P. (Ed.). (2010). Nature and nurture in early child development. Cambridge University Press.

Sacred texts should now be included in the references list (the 6th edition only required an in-text citation).

The Bhagavad Gita. (E. Easwaran, Trans.; 2nd ed.). (2007). The Blue Mountain Center of Meditation.

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. (Original work published 1769)

Journal Articles

Always include the issue number. Previously if the issues were paginated continuously you did not need to include it. The formatting of the DOI should now follow the format

Zhao, W., Garcia-Oscos, F., Dinh, D., & Roberts, T. F. (2019). Inception of memories that guide vocal learning in the songbird. Science, 366(6461), 83–89.

If a journal article does not have a DOI, you may end the citation after the page numbers. There is no longer a requirement to include the URL of the journal's homepage. However, if an article is open access, you may choose to link directly to the article's full text.

Kerlis, B. (2013). Sacred spaces in virtual places: Locating religion in the financial market. Journal for the Study of Religion, 26(1), 23–44.

If an article has an article number, use that in place of the page numbers

Derry, K. (2018). Myth and monstrosity: Teaching indigenous films. Journal of Religion & Film, 22(3), Article 7.

You may use a shortened DOI if desired.

Grasset, L., Glymour, M. M., Elfassy, T., Swift, S. L., Yaffe, K., Singh-Manoux, A., &emp; Al Hazzouri, A. Z. (2019). Relation between 20-year income volatility and brain health in midlife: The CARDIA study. Neurology

information from Santa Fe College: